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COVID-19 and Nutrition Analytical Framework: Multi-sectoral impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on nutrition outcomes: An analytical framework

UNICEF, USAID, USAID Advancing Nutrition, WHO UNICEF, USAID Advancing Nutrition, USAID, WHO
Report on the multisectoral analytical framework by WHO, UNICEF, and USAID which lays out the multisectoral impacts of COVID-19 and nutrition by grouping various factors relevant to the intersection between COVID-19 pandemic and nutrition into different categories and sub-categories. The five overarching categories are enabling determinants, underlying determinants, immediate determinants, outcomes, and impact. Each of the three categories of determinants has a different sub-category of critical factors: context, system and behavioural and nutritional status. Enabling determinants are the environmental context, the COVID pandemic, governance, resource, and socio-cultural context. Underlying determinants include the food, health, social protection, education, and water and sanitation systems. The immediate determinants comprise breastfeeding practices, mother infant dyad, food handling, physical activity, dietary intake, food security, maternal nutrition, nutrient absorption, mental wellbeing, and the immune system. The outcomes are breastfeeding, stunting, wasting, low birthweight, anemia, and overweight. Eventually, the impact is mortality, morbidity, and human capital. The report gives examples of impact pathways for all six outcomes. The framework recognizes the overall environmental context and the wide-ranging effects of COVID-19 pandemic. The framework also acknowledges the cross-cutting causes and consequences of deepening inequality on the intersection of COVID-19 and nutrition. The straightforward structure and content of the analytical framework makes it a powerful and adaptable tool for users interested in exploring the linkages between the COVID-19 pandemic and nutrition, with broad applicability in different contexts. It provides policymakers and programme staff with the ability to identify and understand the many different pathways and scenarios where COVID-19 and nutrition intersect. Its versatility and flexibility also enable planners and evaluators to assess and adapt existing policies and programmes as well as consider future options and opportunities. A parallel component of this work is the ability of modellers to explore the implications of different decisions, actions and/or factors on the overall framework and/or specific pathways or scenarios. In addition, data experts can use the framework to identify where meaningful data exist and where they need to be collected and analysed to improve decision-making and programme implementation.The ultimate value of the framework is its ability to provide a systemic but flexible approach to frame and manage future pandemics and shocks by learning how countries – individually and collectively – responded to the multiple crises linked to the COVID-19 pandemic and nutrition.
  • COVID-19 Pandemic
  • Education
  • Health
  • Nutrition
  • Global
  • a. Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs)
  • b. High-Income Countries (HICs)
  • Adults (men and/or women 19+ years old)
  • Children (boys and/or girls 1-10 years old)
  • Communities
  • Households
  • Infants (boys and/or girls up to 12 months old)
  • Mothers
  • Newborns/Babies (boys and /or girls 1-28 days old)
  • Pregnant Women and/or Girls
  • Women (adults and/or adolescents)
  • Advocacy
  • Implementation
  • Policy
  • Research
  • Advocacy Tool
  • Implementation Guidance Document
  • Implementation Tool
  • Policy Guidance Document
  • Report

Highlighted Sources

Act now before Ukraine war plunges millions into malnutrition

  • Advocacy
  • Policy
  • Research
  • Policy Guidance Document
  • Scientific Publication/Journal article
  • COVID-19 Pandemic
  • Economic
  • Education
  • Food Insecurity
  • Gender and/or Agency
  • Health
  • Nutrition
  • Other Crises
  • Social Support and Protection
  • Ukraine War
  • Women and/or Girls
2022-4-21
Article on the impact of the Ukraine war on global malnutrition, laying out the elements contributing to this worldwide nutrition crisis including the disproportionate effects on women and children. It puts forward five urgent actions to be taken by governments, donors, and others to protect current and future generations from the devastating effects of malnutrition as well as to prevent acute food insecurity. View Source

Economic shocks predict increases in child wasting prevalence

  • Research
  • Article
  • Scientific Publication/Journal article
  • COVID-19 Pandemic
  • Economic
  • Food Insecurity
  • Health
  • Nutrition
  • Other Crises
  • Social Support and Protection
2022-04-20
Article on the impact of severe negative economic shock on child acute malnutrition (wasting), a major risk factor for under-5 mortality. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) macroeconomic volatility is common, and severe negative economic shocks can substantially increase poverty and food insecurity. Less well understood are the implications of these contractions for child wasting. This study explores the nutritional impacts of economic growth shocks over 1990–2018 by linking wasting outcomes collected for 1.256 million children from 52 countries to lagged annual changes in economic growth. Estimates suggest that a 10% annual decline in national income increases moderate/severe wasting prevalence by 14.4–17.8%. An exploration of possible mechanisms suggests negative economic shocks may increase risks of inadequate dietary diversity among children. Applying these results to the latest economic growth estimates for 2020 suggests that COVID-19 could put an additional 9.4 million preschoolers at risk of wasting, net of the effects of preventative policy actions. View Source

Assessing and mitigating the impact of shocks on food security and nutrition in the Asia Pacific region: Lessons from the COVID-19 response for informing the Global Food Crisis response

  • Policy
  • Research
  • Brief
  • Policy Guidance Document
  • Report
  • COVID-19 Pandemic
  • Economic
  • Food Insecurity
  • Health
  • Nutrition
  • Other Crises
  • Social Support and Protection
  • Ukraine War
  • Women and/or Girls
2022-7
Report on assessing and mitigating the impact of shocks on food security and nutrition in the Asia Pacific region to obtain lessons from the COVID-19 response for informing the Global Food Crises response. It lays out a series of studies undertaken by WFP and partners to better understand the realities of the food security and nutrition landscape since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in the region. These are based on experiences throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, where WFP has continually assessed household vulnerability to food and nutrition insecurity through monitoring surveys, while simultaneously providing technical assistance and operations support for programs in response to the pandemic in the Asia Pacific region. In addition to WFP’s food security monitoring reports and data made available from WFP’s Fill the Nutrient Gap analyses, this brief utilizes secondary data relevant to the crisis, as well as four documents recently published by WFP and its partners. While the focus of this brief is on the COVID-19 crisis, its lessons can be applied now and into the future. Other types of covariate shocks will create compounding problems for countries. View Source