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Social protection and jobs responses to COVID-19: A real-time review of country measures

World Bank Gentilini, U., Almenfi, M., Iyengar, H. T., Okamura, Y., Downes, J. A., Dale, P., Weber, M., Newhouse, D., Rodriguez Alas, C., Kamran, M., Mujica, I. V., Fontenez, M. B., Ezzat, M., Asieduah, S., Mahboobani Martinez, V. R., Reyes Hartley, G. J., Demarco, G., Abels, M., Zafar, U., Urteaga, E. R., Valleriani, G., Muhindo, J. V., Aziz, S. 2022-2-2
'Living paper' Report on social protection and jobs responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, providing a real-time review of country measures. As of January 2022, a total of 3,856 social protection and labor measures were planned or implemented by 223 economies. This constitutes a net increase of 523 measures, or 15.6 percent since the last update in May 2021. While noteworthy, such increase is the lowest among net additions observed over previous semesters. In fact, the global pace of measures’ introduction over January 2020-January 2022 has been slowing down. This report focuses on the real-time review of country measures in terms of social protection and job responses to Coronavirus (COVID-19).
  • COVID-19 Pandemic
  • Economic
  • Education
  • Food Insecurity
  • Gender and/or Agency
  • Health
  • Nutrition
  • Social Support and Protection
  • Women and/or Girls
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • Australasia
  • Caribbean
  • Central Africa
  • Central America
  • Central Asia
  • Central Europe
  • East Africa
  • East Asia
  • Eastern Europe
  • Europe
  • Global
  • Horn of Africa
  • Latin America
  • Melanesia
  • Micronesia
  • Middle East
  • North Africa
  • North America
  • Northern Europe
  • Northern Europe
  • Oceania
  • Pacific Islands
  • Polynesia
  • Sahel
  • South Africa
  • South America
  • South Asia
  • Southeast Africa
  • Southeast Asia
  • Southern Europe
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • West Africa
  • West Asia
  • Western Europe
  • a. Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs)
  • Afghanistan
  • Albania
  • Algeria
  • American Samoa
  • Andorra
  • Angola
  • Anguilla (UK)
  • Antigua and Barbuda
  • Argentina
  • Armenia
  • Aruba
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • b. High-Income Countries (HICs)
  • Bahamas
  • Bahrain
  • Bangladesh
  • Barbados
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Belize
  • Benin
  • Bermuda
  • Bhutan
  • Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Botswana
  • Brazil
  • British Virgin Islands
  • Brunei Darussalam
  • Bulgaria
  • Burkina Faso
  • Burundi
  • Cabo Verde
  • Cambodia
  • Cameroon
  • Canada
  • Caribbean Netherlands (Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, Saba)
  • Cayman Islands
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Chile
  • China
  • Colombia
  • Comoros
  • Congo (Republic of the)
  • Congo-Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC))
  • Cook Islands
  • Costa Rica
  • Côte d'Ivoire
  • Croatia
  • Cuba
  • Curaçao
  • Cyprus
  • Czechia (Czech Republic)
  • Denmark
  • Djibouti
  • Dominica
  • Dominican Republic
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt (Arab Republic)
  • El Salvador
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Eritrea
  • Estonia
  • Eswatini (Swaziland)
  • Ethiopia
  • Faroe Islands
  • Fiji
  • Finland
  • France
  • French Polynesia
  • Gabon
  • Gambia, The
  • Georgia
  • Germany
  • Ghana
  • Gibraltar
  • Greece
  • Greenland
  • Grenada
  • Guam
  • Guatemala
  • Guernsey
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Guyana
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Hong Kong
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Iran (Islamic Republic)
  • Iraq
  • Ireland
  • Isle of Man
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Jamaica
  • Japan
  • Jersey
  • Jordan
  • Kazachstan
  • Kenya
  • Kiribati
  • Kosovo
  • Kuwait
  • Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic)
  • Lao (People's Democratic Republic (PDR))
  • Latvia
  • Lebanon
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia
  • Libya
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Macao SAR, China
  • Macedonia (Republic of North)
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Malaysia
  • Maldives
  • Mali
  • Malta
  • Marshall Islands
  • Mauritania
  • Mauritius
  • Mexico
  • Micronesia (Federated States of)
  • Moldova
  • Moldova (Republic of)
  • Monaco
  • Mongolia
  • Montenegro
  • Montserrat (UK)
  • Morocco
  • Mozambique
  • Myanmar
  • Namibia
  • Nauru
  • Nepal
  • Netherlands
  • New Caledonia
  • New Zealand
  • Nicaragua
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Northern Mariana Islands
  • Norway
  • Oman
  • Pakistan
  • Palau
  • Palestine (West Bank and Gaza)
  • Panama
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Puerto Rico
  • Qatar
  • Réunion (France)
  • Romania
  • Russia (Russian Federation)
  • Rwanda
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • Saint Lucia
  • Saint Martin (French Part)
  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France)
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Samoa
  • San Marino
  • São Tomé and Principe
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Senegal
  • Serbia
  • Seychelles
  • Sierra Leone
  • Singapore
  • Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
  • Slovakia (The Slovak Republic)
  • Slovenia
  • Solomon Islands
  • Somalia
  • South Africa
  • South Korea (Republic of Korea)
  • South Sudan
  • Spain
  • Sri Lanka
  • Sudan
  • Suriname
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Syria (Syrian Arab Republic)
  • Taiwan SAR, China
  • Tajikistan
  • Tanzania (United Republic of)
  • Thailand
  • Timor-Leste
  • Togo
  • Tonga
  • Trinidad & Tobago
  • Tunisia
  • Turkey/Türkiye
  • Turkmenistan
  • Turks and Caicos Islands
  • Tuvalu
  • Uganda
  • Ukraine
  • United Arab Emirates
  • United Kingdom
  • United States of America
  • Uruguay
  • Uzbekistan
  • Vanuatu
  • Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
  • Vietnam
  • Virgin Islands (US)
  • Yemen
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Adolescents (boys and/or girls 10-19 years old)
  • Adults (men and/or women 19+ years old)
  • Boys (adolescents and/or children)
  • Children (boys and/or girls 1-10 years old)
  • Communities
  • Country-level population(s)
  • Elderly
  • Girls (adolescents and/or children)
  • Households
  • Infants (boys and/or girls up to 12 months old)
  • Lactating Women and/or Girls
  • Men (adults and/or adolescents)
  • Mothers
  • Newborns/Babies (boys and /or girls 1-28 days old)
  • Pregnant Women and/or Girls
  • Refugees and/or displaced individuals
  • Women (adults and/or adolescents)
  • Research
  • Report

Highlighted Sources

Act now before Ukraine war plunges millions into malnutrition

  • Advocacy
  • Policy
  • Research
  • Policy Guidance Document
  • Scientific Publication/Journal article
  • COVID-19 Pandemic
  • Economic
  • Education
  • Food Insecurity
  • Gender and/or Agency
  • Health
  • Nutrition
  • Other Crises
  • Social Support and Protection
  • Ukraine War
  • Women and/or Girls
2022-4-21
Article on the impact of the Ukraine war on global malnutrition, laying out the elements contributing to this worldwide nutrition crisis including the disproportionate effects on women and children. It puts forward five urgent actions to be taken by governments, donors, and others to protect current and future generations from the devastating effects of malnutrition as well as to prevent acute food insecurity. View Source

Economic shocks predict increases in child wasting prevalence

  • Research
  • Article
  • Scientific Publication/Journal article
  • COVID-19 Pandemic
  • Economic
  • Food Insecurity
  • Health
  • Nutrition
  • Other Crises
  • Social Support and Protection
2022-04-20
Article on the impact of severe negative economic shock on child acute malnutrition (wasting), a major risk factor for under-5 mortality. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) macroeconomic volatility is common, and severe negative economic shocks can substantially increase poverty and food insecurity. Less well understood are the implications of these contractions for child wasting. This study explores the nutritional impacts of economic growth shocks over 1990–2018 by linking wasting outcomes collected for 1.256 million children from 52 countries to lagged annual changes in economic growth. Estimates suggest that a 10% annual decline in national income increases moderate/severe wasting prevalence by 14.4–17.8%. An exploration of possible mechanisms suggests negative economic shocks may increase risks of inadequate dietary diversity among children. Applying these results to the latest economic growth estimates for 2020 suggests that COVID-19 could put an additional 9.4 million preschoolers at risk of wasting, net of the effects of preventative policy actions. View Source

Assessing and mitigating the impact of shocks on food security and nutrition in the Asia Pacific region: Lessons from the COVID-19 response for informing the Global Food Crisis response

  • Policy
  • Research
  • Brief
  • Policy Guidance Document
  • Report
  • COVID-19 Pandemic
  • Economic
  • Food Insecurity
  • Health
  • Nutrition
  • Other Crises
  • Social Support and Protection
  • Ukraine War
  • Women and/or Girls
2022-7
Report on assessing and mitigating the impact of shocks on food security and nutrition in the Asia Pacific region to obtain lessons from the COVID-19 response for informing the Global Food Crises response. It lays out a series of studies undertaken by WFP and partners to better understand the realities of the food security and nutrition landscape since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in the region. These are based on experiences throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, where WFP has continually assessed household vulnerability to food and nutrition insecurity through monitoring surveys, while simultaneously providing technical assistance and operations support for programs in response to the pandemic in the Asia Pacific region. In addition to WFP’s food security monitoring reports and data made available from WFP’s Fill the Nutrient Gap analyses, this brief utilizes secondary data relevant to the crisis, as well as four documents recently published by WFP and its partners. While the focus of this brief is on the COVID-19 crisis, its lessons can be applied now and into the future. Other types of covariate shocks will create compounding problems for countries. View Source